The chalk cliffs are mainly sheer with little vegetation, but the…

May 11, 2010

The chalk cliffs are mainly sheer with little vegetation, but the sandstone cliffs are more tumbled with an undercliff structure, and in places of sufficient stability to have allowed vegetation to form.
All these cliffs erode rapidly and retreating at a rate of up to 1.86 metres per year.
Large single falls are less common on the sandstone cliffs than on the chalk and the former tending to slump and yet recede the fastest.
The birds regularly recorded nesting on these cliffs are the Kestrel, Herring Gull, Jackdaw, Rock Pipit, Starling, House Sparrow and Stock Dove.
Lesser Black-backed Gulls nest on the cliffs periodically, as do Black Redstarts. Fulmars have bred and have been present since at least the early 1950s. House Martins have been recorded nesting on the cliffs occasionally.
Cormorants no longer breed, and the Raven has not nested since 1895, apart from a pair, one bird at least of which was an escaped pet, which nested between 1938 and 1945.
The Peregrine Falcon has not bred since 1957, although the chalk cliffs once held one of the highest densities of breeding pairs in Britain.
The cliff-nesting Kestrel population had probably declined by the late 1940s, and certainly did so after 1951.
A reduction in suitable nest sites has been suggested as a possible cause, and a breeding survey of cliff-nesting Herring Gulls and Rock Pipits conducted in 1965 tends to confirm this idea.
This survey showed three pairs of Rock Pipits nesting in the cliffs east of Hastings, and 42 pairs on the chalk cliffs.
Although no Herring Gulls were reported nesting on the Hastings cliffs up to 1935, a total of 371 pairs did so in 1965 compared with 395 pairs on the chalk cliffs.
However, Walpole-Bond in 1938 recorded “perhaps as many as 2,000 couples” of Herring Gulls between Seaford and Beachy Head alone and and since it is doubtful whether there are suitable sites for this number at present, a change in cliff structure along the chalk is very likely. Probably some of these birds moved east to the sandstone cliffs. Tidal Basins and Mudflats, Estuaries and Saltings
Tidal mudflats occur at the mouths of nearly all Sussex rivers, along the coast principally at Pevensey Bay and from Pett to Rye Bay, and most notably in the tidal basins of Pagham and Chichester Harbours.
Chichester Harbour straddles the county boundary with Hampshire and the harbours of Langstone and Portsmouth (also Hampshire) are a part of the same ecological and physical unit.
Chichester Harbour alone has some 1,298 hectares of mudflats, 164 hectares of sand, 611 hectares of Spartina marsh, and 42 hectares of saltmarsh.
For reasons of simplicity (and ornithological necessity) the whole of Chichester Harbour is considered as being within Sussex for the purpose of wildfowl and wader counts.
Breeding bird species of these largely intertidal habitats are, not surprisingly, few, although some, particularly Redshank and Meadow Pipit, nest on the drier parts of the saltings with a few Lapwings.sizeable gull and tern colony exists on islands in Chichester Harbour.
The most important species nesting in close association with tidal areas is the Shelduck which nests around Chichester and Pagham Harbours, near the Cuckmere River, at Pett Level and in the Rye area.
No full census of the breeding numbers of this species has been carried out recently, but there are probably some 100 to 150 pairs.


Sometimes it flops to the ground as if exhausted.

May 8, 2010

Sometimes it flops to the ground as if exhausted.
Its feathers are ruffled, as those of a genuinely sick bird would be, and this ruffling often exposes bright patches of plumage that add to the conspicuousness of the display.
If the parent bird is aquatic and is making its display on water, it may turn on its side, flap one wing awkwardly in the air and paddle itself in a circle as if it is hopelessly crippled.
Even while they are staggering about, fluttering and floundering and these mock-disabled birds are fully aware of everything around them.
They are not suffering some kind of seizure brought on by the fear of the nearby predator. All their actions are counterfeit.
An early observer was amused to notice that certain shore-nesting birds took great care about the way they performed their imitation death throes: “The end comes slowly and surely, a miserable flurry and scraping and the dying stilt, however, even in articulo mortis , contriving to avoid inconvenient stones, upon which decently to expire.”
In other words and these are ritualised displays triggered off by the stimulus of “predator-near-nest”.
Whatever their origin and they are now highly controlled and automatic responses to this situation.
They represent an elaborate piece of behavioural mimicry and appear to be inborn.
Indeed a Galapagos dove was seen to perform a distraction display on an island where there had been no predators for countless years.
When humans arrived and the dove demonstrated a behaviour pattern that it must have inherited from its ancient ancestors and kept in storage ever since.
Many ground-nesting birds employ a distraction display that draws an approaching predator away from the nest-site where vulnerable eggs or chicks are situated.
The display and seen here performed by a thick-knee (top), a kildeer (above) and a semi-palmated plover (opposite and top and bottom), usually consists of a simulated injury “the body is rolled on one side and an apparently broken wing trailed along the ground.
The “damaged” bird struggles away from the nest, followed closely by the would-be killer.
When the predator comes too close and the parent bird suddenly leaps up and flies to safety.
The “rodent-run” display takes an entirely different form and is employed especially where the local predatory species are always on the alert for small rats, mice, or lemmings.
The bird jumps from its nest at the last minute and runs off making a special squeaking call.

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Wolves, last of the great native predators, are now rare in…

May 4, 2010

Wolves, last of the great native predators, are now rare in Italy. Feral dogs are taking their place
NOT SO LONG AGO it seemed that we had very nearly lost our fairy tale beasts.
Bears are exceedingly thin on the ground in European forests and these days ravening packs of wolves rarely come howling across the Danube when the winter is hard enough to freeze the river over.
Whether the relative scarcity of wolves is an abhorrent vacuum is a matter of personal taste, but there is now compelling evidence that nature is moving to fill the gap.
Southern European countries, particularly Italy, are beginning to face serious problems with another big new predator.
This is the feral dog; the domestic animal adapted to the wild and living as a wild animal.
According to a game survey recently performed by a group at the Istituto di Zoologia of the University of Rome, Italy’s population of fully wild, feral dogs has exploded to above 80 000 and is fuelled by a pool of perhaps ten times as many stray and free-ranging animals. Feral dogs in the Italian environment behave in much the same fashion as wolves.
Running mainly at night in packs of up to 20 or 30 members and they avoid the sight of man, and prey by preference on the larger herbivores.
Since game in the form of deer and roebuck is scarce and the herbivores in question are often man’s cattle, horses and especially sheep.
Though reliable comparative data are lacking and the Italian researchers believe the feral dog population has at least doubled since 1975.
This extraordinary increase is due in part to the fact that the dogs breed twice a year and it seems that all females give birth whereas in wolf society only dominant females do so.
Competition in the wild favours larger dogs: mastiffs and setters, German shepherds and the bigger hunting and herding breeds.
Documentary evidence of the economic damage caused by these animals has only recently become available with the institution in Italy of a programme to refund farmers for losses caused by wolves, which are legally protected.
Last year farmers and herders claimed for losses of more than £650 000 in just three Italian regions ” Abruzzo, Latium and the Campania.
Even allowing for the traditionally light-hearted Italian attitude toward obtaining government money, Italy’s wolves number at best only about 150, including puppies. Most official wolf damage is certainly caused by wild dogs.

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Regular cleaning and inspection is essential.

April 29, 2010

Regular cleaning and inspection is essential.
Aids for incontinence
The continence adviser or community nurse will be able to advise on the most appropriate aids to be used to absorb or contain urine.
These are very useful during retraining the bladder or where a cure is impossible, but they should not be used instead of exercise and retraining or other forms of therapy. They include:
Protection for bedding and furnishings
Cheap washable sheets and covers, which are the most practical as they can be disposed of if they become heavily stained. Pads
Various pads and securing pants are available to meet all degrees of incontinence. Bags or pouches
These are suitable for men.
If they suffer from mild incontinence and they may use a sheath or condom, which has to be fitted correctly to avoid leakage.
For those who are mostly in bed or in a wheelchair and there are various types of bags, which can also be used at night.
If possible, choose a container which the man is able to put on and empty on his own. Catheters
With these, a tube is usually inserted into the opening of the bladder so that urine drains directly into a small bag or container.
They should be fitted in the first instance by a community nurse, who will show you and the resident how to look after the catheter and how to empty the bag. Care must be taken not to introduce an infection.
After the first day or so some people are able to operate their own catheters.
NOTE A careful check needs to be made that the patient’s skin does not become sore while aids are being used and that the aids are being worn comfortably and discreetly. Helping with bedpans and urinals
If you are looking after a sick person, you may have to give bedpans or urinals at regular intervals and also remove and empty them. It’s important that you don’t show it if you find the task distasteful. Make sure the bedpan or urinal is clean and warmed slightly. Also provide a cover for the pan and towel and toilet roll and tissues. If possible and two members of staff should place the patient on the pan. Make sure they are well balanced and will not slip off.
You may need to remain nearby in case they do slip, but this can prevent some people from functioning so you will have to be sensitive to their feelings.

Military urged to transfer its technology…

April 22, 2010

Military urged to transfer its technology
THE IDEA that Britain’s leading position in military technology automatically helps its industrial base has taken a new blow.
A report by the electronics committee of the government’s National Economic Development Council says that the type of companies that lead the military electronics market are precisely the companies that are unable or unwilling to develop products for civilian customers.
The report’s author, Sir Ieuan Maddock, a former chief scientist at the Department of Industry and says the Ministry of Defence is partly to blame for this stagnation in “technology transfer”.
The bulk of the ministry’s technically-sophisticated work goes to companies or divisions of companies that deal almost exclusively with the Ministry of Defence.
And most companies that deal in both military and civilian products admitted to Maddock that transfers between the two “did not happen to anything like the extent that was desirable”.
Maddock visited defence contractors such as Ferranti, GEC-Marconi, Mullard, Plessey, Racal and Thorn-EMI in his investigation.
Maddock reports that most firms are hostile to the idea of moving people between civil and military sectors: “There already exists a large culture gap and it is getting even wider.”
In the long run and this situation is bad for Britain’s industry, Maddock argues, because the technology gap is growing all the time between companies working on advanced defence electronics (in which Britain leads the world) and these struggling to retain some of the consumer electronics business.
In contrast, before the Second World war, British civil industry was a leader in products such as radios and cathode-ray tubes which could be adapted quickly for military purposes.
“The brilliant inventiveness of the engineers and scientists…would have been of little avail if this strong industrial base had not existed.”
The Ministry of Defence’s own research establishments also came in for criticism for playing too great a role in specifying, designing and managing defence projects.
Maddock urged the laboratories to set up “industrial applications units” to find civil uses for their projects.
According to the report and the only way for Britain to benefit from its military strengths in rebuilding an electronics industry is for a massive, government-sponsored effort in technology transfer.
This cannot be achieved by existing military contractors moving into civilian markets for which they have few skills, but by giving the market-oriented companies more access to “front-line” technology. Drivers to pay
HONG KONG will announce next week a £35 million experimental pay-as-you-drive scheme for taxing the colony’s 300 000 motorists.
If the trial is successful the Hong Kong government will extend it to cover the entire colony.

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In skill learning this means the proper sequencing and timing…

April 12, 2010

In skill learning this means the proper sequencing and timing of the elements of a chain. There are two possible variations in sequencing.
The skill can be learned as a whole and in the same sequence as normally performed in practice.
This is best for complex and highly organised skills where component parts interact. The whole method is a form of simplification.
In less organised skills where there is little interaction and subtasks may be learned and practised separately before combining them. Practice
Practice serves to strengthen the S-R elements of the chain and to aid the learning of sequences and to prevent forgetting and to strengthen the fixation and autonomous phases.
Periods of practice should be spaced with short rest periods in between, but much will depend on the time available and the opportunities provided on the ward. Feedback
Feedback is especially important in skill learning.
Two forms have been delineated: extrinsic and intrinsic.
Extrinsic feedback is provided by the teacher in the form of information about the success or failure of the practice to match up to the standard performance.
It must be provided immediately to have any effect on learning: the longer the delay and the slower the rate of learning.
Intrinsic feedback is obtained through the student’s own actions and is of two kinds ” internal and external.
Internal or kinaesthetic feedback is the feeling obtained from the muscles when performing a skill. It is that “right feel” about an action that tells one all is well.
It may take some time before a beginner experiences it, but performance will not become efficient until she does.
External feedback is information obtained through the senses, usually visually, by which the student can judge the level of performance and make corrections where necessary.
An extension of intrinsic feedback is the feeling of satisfaction obtained after completing a skill successfully.
Extrinsic feedback from the teacher is necessary during skill learning and early practice, until intrinsic feedback takes over.

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not to be forced to do anything against your…

April 5, 2010

not to be forced to do anything against your will
One Home has drawn up a more extensive list of practical rights which goes into detail about every aspect of life in the Home.
Each new resident and member of staff is given this and they find it very helpful. The manager’s comments are printed underneath the points they refer to. You may register with a doctor, dentist, chiropodist of your choice.
“We have as many as fifteen GP’s attached to this Home because our residents like to see a doctor they know.”
You may have access to physiotherapists, community nursing, other nursing services provided by the health authority or private agency nurses.
You may have access to your room at all times and have the privacy to lock your room door and any cupboard inside your room. “Every door has its own lock, and residents also have a safe for valuables.”
You may make a complaint by using a special complaint card which will be seen by the manager of the Home.
You may contribute to running the Home by attending its residents’ committee meetings. “We have a residents’ meeting once a month.
At the moment it’s chaired by one of the senior staff.
They talk about any problems, maybe with other clients and things like that and ask for suggestions. It’s mostly changes of menu that the discussion goes round.
Or for instance, we decorated two of our lounges and the residents discussed what paints and paper they’d like on the walls.” You may control the spending of the Home’s amenity fund.
“We have to raise money ourselves to do any outings, we’re given a very small budget so we have fund raising events, and the clients have total say about how we use that.” You may get up and go to bed when you please.
“Some clients stay up till two o’clock in the morning.

Only one certain fact remains with her.

March 16, 2010

Only one certain fact remains with her.
From that night onwards, Gary was a different person.
A seven-year-old lovable imp turned overnight into what can only be described as a “demon”. The first and most enduring victim of the new Gary was his mother’s purse.
Next came his three younger sisters whom he began to terrorise ” biting and kicking and scratching them.
His fellow pupils at school suffered so badly that Mary became a constant visitor to the headmaster’s study, and Gary was banned from the playground.
Neighbours formed queues on occasions as they came to complain of mindless acts of vandalism.
Both Mary and Terry devoted much of their energies and time and love to solving their son’s behaviour.
On one occasion and they tried to interest him in the piano but that finished within three weeks with two surprises. Gary’s teacher came round with both of them.
First was the news that the lad had such a natural ear and ability that the teacher felt that he could not teach him anything. The second was the request for payment for the three lessons. Gary had pocketed his piano fees.
The following years of unrelieved deception and destruction were tinged with the happiness of Terry’s apparent conversion to Christ and subsequent church work. However and this introduced a new pattern to Gary’s war on the world around him. Mary explained…
“On the frequent occasions we were engaged in Christian work, we had additional problems with our black lamb. He stole the Sunday school collection.
He eavesdropped on church leadership meetings in our home and then made it his business to tell everybody all that we had discussed.
The church visitors were intensely embarrassed shortly after we had agreed to have door-to-door visitation for a forthcoming town mission. Gary had beaten them to it, and had demanded contributions for the mission. Of course, he had kept the money.
“It was strange how Gary would often know things he had not been told.
We soon took steps to ensure that Gary was otherwise occupied when private matters of the church and home were discussed.
Even then, Terry and I used to have arguments when one of us discovered that Gary had knowledge of things that only the two of us knew.
The only human explanation was that one of us had said something in an unguarded moment.

Receiving goods into stock…

March 11, 2010

Receiving goods into stock
When the goods have been dispatched and the manufacturer sends an advice note to the retailer informing him of the date and time of dispatch.
A delivery note is sent along with the goods ” this enables the retailer to check that the delivery he receives matches the one dispatched by the manufacturer.
Many shops and stores have a special delivery area, usually at the rear of the store.
Goods can be unloaded and dealt with as soon as they arrive from the manufacturer. The procedure for receiving stock is usually as follows:
Goods are unloaded
Deliveries are checked for damage and/or shortages (the advice note/delivery note will have a record of what should have been sent) 3
The delivery note is signed and the driver retains one copy.
Any shortages are recorded on the delivery note so that the supplier can correct the shortfall. 4
Deliveries are recorded in a “goods received” book.
(Smaller companies may not have a special book, but instead keep the advice/delivery note on file) 5
Goods are moved into the warehouse, checked and then transferred to their storage space. Large packages may be unloaded onto pallets and moved by fork-lift truck. The invoice
At the end of the month following the delivery of the order and the manufacturer will send the retailer an invoice or bill and similar to the one below: An invoice will usually give:

Depending on the evolution of management…

February 5, 2010

Depending on the evolution of management during the early 1990s and the confusions building up in the Training Authority’s role may need to be unravelled: either it is strengthened as an effective arm of central policy, or it is abolished so that the market ” created by itself ” can have freer play.
It will then be up to local Health Authorities and Hospital Trusts to decide for themselves what to invest in management development, if Conservative Government remains.
If a Labour Government takes over, it is likely that the Authority will be integrated into a more comprehensive view of a planned NHS and its role strengthened. A “demand-led” strategy?
Whatever the future of the NHS Training Authority during the 1990s and there will be a continuing need for policy guidance for development from the centre.
At the very minimum and the NHS Management Executive will need the availability of skilled advice.
The source of this advice will be an indicator of the cultural shift in the NHS: will the advice be tendered by a single expert of directorial status on the Executive ” a “general management” culture ” or collectively by an Authority in the traditional manner ” a “consensus”culture? Three policy issues will dominate the early 1990s.
The first one will focus on what might be called “competition policy”.
It will be necessary to decide on the amount of resource to be invested in management development, and what mechanism should be used to allocate these resources .
At present and the reins of central control in management development have been slackened, and Health Authorities locally have been freer to decide for themselves.
This has faced management development proposals with hard competition from patient care and professional imperatives.
The generalised and longer-term values of the former are always likely to be seen to a disadvantage against the more immediate and more publicly “acceptable” benefits of the latter.
It is for the Management Executive to consider the merits of investment in its managers and, as necessary and to ease the competitive situation locally.
The temptation is to establish a structure which relies on the initiatives of experts-Training Authorities, Regional Training Departments, Management Development Advisers.
This is one of the messages in the White Paper Working Paper 10 concerning Education and Training (Department of Health, 1989c).
The history of the 1970s and 1980s suggests that this approach “a “supply-led” strategy ” will have only limited success.
An alternative ” and theoretically the more sound approach ” is a “demand-led” strategy in which general managers are committed to investment in development because they can see its importance.
This suggests that pressure from the top should be exerted through the hierarchical line of accountability and through mechanisms such as Annual Review and, in the post-White Paper era and specific clauses in contracts.
Given the commitment of general managers and resources will be found and expertise deployed where it is wanted by the managers. To what extent is this a threat to the management development specialist? In the short term, it may upset established practices.
But, in the longer term, it promises to move the specialist closer to the levers of power, which have often eluded his or her grasp, leaving a sense of being on the periphery of events. Nor need specialists be passive spectators during any transition in strategy. They can and should influence events.
One of the challenges is to engage more convincingly in the process of evaluation.
This has always constituted something of an Achilles Heel: it has been impossible to prove the value of development activity in most cases. It remains an act of common sense or even faith.
The problems of evaluation are well known, and a number of approaches are available in the writing of Easterby-Smith and others (Easterby-Smith, 1981).